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Kenneth I (843-858) MacAlpin, son of Alpin, was the 35th king of Dalriada. By inheritance (his grandmother was a Pict) and by conquest, he also became king of the Picts in 843 and by 858 ruled as far as the river Tweed (near the current English border). One of his daughters married the King of Strathclyde and their son became King Eochaid (below). On his death in 858, Kenneth's brother became King Donald I and his cousins later became Kings Constantine I and King Aed.

Donald I (858-862) succeeded his brother Kenneth. He consolidated the gains won by his brother, and at Forteviot brought secular as well as ecclesiastical control under the emerging area of Scotia. Killed in battle, or possibly murdered, he died at Scone but had no heirs. He was buried on Iona and succeeded by his nephew Constantine.

Constantine I (862-878), son of Kenneth MacAlpin and brother of Aedh, he became king on the death of his uncle Donald. For much of his reign he was faced with repeated attacks from Vikings, and was killed in a battle with the Danes.

 Aedh (878-879). Another son of Kenneth I and brother of Constantine I, he was killed by Giric, a son of Donald I.

 Eochaid (879-889) Grandson of Kenneth I, whose daughter married Run, King of Strathclyde and gave birth to Eochaid, thus eventually extending further the kingdom of Alba. He was deposed shortly before his death.

 Donald II (889-900) Donald II was the first monarch to be called "Ri Albain" or "King of Scotland" despite the fact that much of northern Scotland as far as Moray was held by the Norse Earl Sigurd from Orkney. Donald was a son of Constantine I and was described as rough and cunning. He was killed by men from the Mearns near Dunottar and, like most of the early kings of Scotland, was buried on Iona.

Constantine II (900-942) Son of Aedh. After an unsuccessful invasion of Northumbria, Constantine had to submit to the Saxon King Edward the Elder, son of Alfred the Great. Constantine was also defeated in a later battle against Athelstan, Edward's son, at Brunanburgh. He renounced the throne in favour of his cousin, Malcolm I and became a monk at St Andrews. He died in 952.

 Malcolm I (942-954) Malcolm I was a son of Donald II. He was killed in battle with the men of Moray and was buried at Iona.

 Indulph (954-962) King Indulph (also spelt Indulf) was a son of Constantine II. He defeated the Danish King Eric of the Bloody Axe at the Battle of the Bauds on the Muir of Findochty (pronounced Finechty), in present day Banffshire, in 961. Like his father, he abdicated and entered a monastery.

 Dubh/Duff (962-966) Son of Malcolm I, and father of Kenneth III. He died in battle.

 Culen/Cuilean/Colin (966-971) Culen was another great-great-grandson of Kenneth I, and a son of Indulf. He was killed by a treacherous booby-trap at Fettercairn, set by the daughter of the Thane of Angus.

 Kenneth II (971-995) Kenneth II was the son of Malcolm I, and therefore a great-great-grandson of Kenneth I.

 Constantine III (995-997) He was the son of King Culen and grandson of Constantine II. He may have succeeded to the throne by killing Kenneth II, and may in turn have been killed by Kenneth III.

Kenneth III (997-1005) Son of King Dubh, Kenneth III was nicknamed "Donn" or brown-haired. He was defeated and killed at Monzievaird by his cousin, Malcolm II. None of his sons became king.

 Malcolm II (1005-1034) Malcolm II was son of Kenneth II but, due to disputed succession, he did not come to the throne until ten years after his father's death, having killed his cousin Kenneth III. The last of the House of Alpin, he did not have any sons to succeed him, so he arranged good marriages for his daughters. His daughter Bethoc married the Abbot of Dunkeld and their son became Duncan I. Another daughter married Earl Sigurd of Orkney and their son Thorfinn brought the lands of Caithness and Sutherland under the control of the King of Alba. Malcolm made an alliance with King Owen the Bald of Strathclyde, and together they defeated King Canute at the Battle of Carham in 1018. When King Owen died without an heir, Malcolm claimed Strathclyde for his grandson, Duncan. His enemies disliked this and murdered him at Glamis in 1034.

 Duncan I (1034-1040) Grandson of Malcolm II, Duncan I first became King of Strathclyde and then Scotland on the death of his grandfather. He married the cousin of the Earl of Northumberland and his two sons, Malcolm III and Donald III, eventually also became king. He was defeated in battle by his cousin Thorfinn, Earl of Orkney and failed in an unsuccessful siege of Durham in the north of England. He was defeated and killed by Macbeth near Forres in Morayshire.

 Macbeth (1040-1057) Macbeth's origins are obscure. His mother was a daughter of Kenneth II or III, or possibly Malcolm II and his father was Finlay McRory, Mormaer of Atholl and lay abbot of Dunkeld. He killed Duncan I but unlike the Shakespearean Macbeth, he was a powerful and successful monarch. His Queen, Gruoch, was a grand-daughter of Kenneth II. Macbeth was defeated by Malcolm Canmore, with an English army, at Dunsinane in 1054. A second invasion in 1057 saw his defeat and death at Lumphanan, near Aberdeen by Malcolm and his English allies led by Earl Siward of Northumbria.

 Lulach (1057-1058) Stepson of Macbeth, nicknamed "The Fool," Lulach became king on his stepfather's death. He was the first recorded monarch to have been crowned at Scone, but was defeated and killed by Malcolm Canmore less than a year later.

Malcolm III (1058-1093) Malcolm "Canmore" (“ceann” means head or chief, and “mor” means great) was the son of Duncan I and went into exile in Northumberland when his father was killed by Macbeth. With English support, he defeated and killed Macbeth at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire in 1057 and Lulach, Macbeth's stepson, the following year. He founded the dynasty of the House of Canmore which lasted until the House of Stewart. By his first marriage to Ingibiorg (daughter of Thorfinn of Orkney) he had two sons, Duncan II (see below) and Donald. Following Ingibiorg's death he married Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling, who would have become King of England if William the Conqueror from Normandy had not overrun the country. By this marriage there were six sons, four of whom (Duncan, Edgar, Alexander and David) would become king. Malcolm made raids into Northumbria and Cumbria but William marched north and Malcolm was forced to submit and sign the Treaty of Abernethy in 1071. A final incursion in 1093 led to his defeat and death at Alnwick. His son and heir, Edward, died in the same battle and Queen Margaret died four days later.

 Donald III (1093-1094) Donald Bane "the Fair" was a son of Duncan I and a brother of Malcolm III. He claimed the throne when Malcolm III and his son were killed on the same day. During his short reign, in a Celtic backlash, he expelled all the English courtiers brought in by Malcolm and his wife Margaret.

 Duncan II (May to November, 1094) Son of Malcolm III by his first marriage, Duncan grew up in Normandy (he had been handed over as a hostage to William the Conqueror) and ousted his uncle Donald III with the support of the English King William Rufus. However, Donald fought back and Duncan was killed at Dunnottar by his half-brother Edmund (who supported Donald). Duncan's descendants through William, the Earl of Moray, were a thorn in the side of the King of Scotland until the end of the 13th century.

 Donald III (1094-1097) Having resumed his reign, Donald Bane did not last much longer and was captured, blinded and imprisoned by Edgar, one of the sons of Malcolm III. Donald died in captivity 1099 in Forfar and was buried in Iona.

 Edgar (1097-1107) Fourth son of Malcolm III, Edgar was aged 19 at the death of his father in 1093. He was given shelter by the English (Saxon) King William (Rufus) and in 1097, with the assistance of English troops, he defeated his uncle, Donald III. During his reign, the King of Norway, Magnus Barelegs, forced Edgar to give up "all islands round which a ship could sail" and promptly dragged his galley overland at Tarbert, Loch Fyne to seize a chunk of the mainland Mull of Kintyre too. Edgar (whose Saxon name was noted with disapproval at the time) died peacefully in 1107 and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey. His next brother, Alexander I, became king.

Alexander I (1107-1124) Alexander I was the fifth son of Malcolm Canmore. Although King of Scotland, he only ruled north of the Forth and Clyde as his younger brother David had been made Earl of Strathclyde, Lothian and the Borders. North of the river Spey and the Western Isles were under Norwegian control. He died in Stirling in 1124 and was buried in Dunfermline.

 David I (1124-1153) The last son of four of the sons of Malcolm Canmore to become King of Scotland, David I was sent to the English court of Henry I at the age of nine and spent many years there. When his brother Edgar died, David became Earl of southern Scotland and then King of Scotland in 1124 when his other brother Alexander I died also. David brought many knights and courtiers from England and and established a feudal system in Scotland. He introduced many novel ideas such as silver coinage, promoting education and giving audiences to rich and poor alike. During a long and peaceful reign he enacted many good laws and died peacefully in Carlisle in 1153 at the age of 69.

 Malcolm IV (1153-1165) Grandson of David I, Malcolm IV came to the throne at the age of 12 (his father had predeceased him) and was nicknamed "the Maiden". He had to cope with rebellions by Somerled, in Argyll and the Isles and others in Moray and Galloway. Henry II of England also reclaimed Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland which had been ceded to Scotland during the reign of David I. After fighting in France on behalf of King Henry of England he returned and defeated Somerled who was attempting to advance eastwards, but not before the town of Glasgow had been sacked. But he never had good health and died in Jedburgh at the age of 23, succeeded by his brother William.

William (1165-1214) William "The Lion" was also the grandson of David I. The nickname "The Lion" was accorded to him after his death and may have been due either to his valour and strength or to the heraldic symbol which he adopted - the lion rampant. He attempted to recover land in Northumberland in 1174 but was defeated and captured at the Battle of Alnwick. William was forced to swear allegiance to King Henry II of England which lasted until Henry's death in 1189. He failed to assert his authority over the south-west of Scotland and over MacDougall Lords of Lorne or Macdonald Lords of the Isles. He married Ermengarde de Beaumont who bore him a son (Alexander II) and three daughters (all of whom married English nobles).

Alexander II (1214-1249) Alexander II was the son of William the Lion and came to the throne at the age of 16. He has a reputation as a wise and well-loved monarch, more of a politician than a fighter, although he did support the English barons in their fight against King John. His first marriage was to the sister of King Henry III of England (son of King John). Following her death, he married the daughter of a French nobleman by whom he had one son - who became Alexander III. He founded a number of monasteries and the castles at Kildrummy and Eilean Donan. Alexander died on Kerrara, off Oban on 8 July 1249 while attempting to recover the Hebrides from King Haakon IV of Norway. He was buried at Kelso Abbey.

 Alexander III (1249-1286) Alexander III was crowned king at Scone when he was eight years old. He successfully defeated an invasion by King Haakon of Norway at the Battle of Largs in 1263. Married to Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England, his daughter married Haakon's grandson, Eric II - their daughter Margaret later became Queen of Scotland. He had three children but they all predeceased him. Alexander married a second time in order to produce a direct heir but within six months of his marriage his horse stumbled in the dark in Fife as he was returning to his wife and he died at the foot of the cliff.

 Margaret (1286-1290) Grand-daughter of Alexander III, Margaret "Maid of Norway" became Queen of Scotland at the age of three. She was the last of the direct line of the House of Canmore. She left Norway to come to Orkney in 1290 but died on the voyage before reaching Scotland. Prior to this, by the Treaty of Birgham in 1290, King Edward I had guaranteed the survival of Scotland "separate, apart and free without subjection to the English nation" as a result of the six-year-old Margaret marrying the five-year-old future king of England, Edward II. The arrangement was invalidated by Margaret's death.

 Interregnum [1](1290-1292) There were thirteen competitors for the throne of Scotland at this point, the main ones being John Balliol and Robert Bruce, Earl of Annandale. It was decided to ask the Edward I, King of England to adjudicate. Edward used the situation to his advantage, insisting that the King of Scotland should be subservient to the King of England (contrary to the principles set out in the Treaty of Birgham - see above). Edward eventually appointed John Balliol - at the same time demanding custody of many of the important Scottish castles.

 John (1292-1296) John Balliol, who owned estates in both Scotland and England, was crowned at Scone in 1292. However, Edward's demands, including Scottish soldiers for his war in France, became increasingly intolerable. John attempted to renew the "Auld Alliance" with France but Edward invaded Scotland and routed the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar in 1296. John fled but was forced to make an abject surrender. His royal insignia was stripped from him (giving rise to his nickname "Toom Tabard," or empty coat). After a spell imprisoned in the Tower of London he was released and spent the rest of his life in France.

 Interregnum (1296-1306) With John Balliol out of the way, King Edward effectively ruled Scotland for the next ten years. William Wallace defeated Edward at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297 and governed Scotland briefly, but was defeated the following year at the Battle of Falkirk. Wallace continued a guerilla campaign but was captured and executed in 1305. It was not until Robert the Bruce emerged and was crowned at Scone in 1306 that Scotland regained her own monarch. 

 Robert I (1306-1329) Robert the Bruce's grandfather, Robert Bruce of Annandale, who had estates in Huntingdon as well as Scotland, was one of the claimants to the throne of Scotland on the death of Queen Margaret, Maid of Norway, in 1290 (he was a descendant of King Alexander II). On the death of his father, the Earl of Carrick, Robert was reputedly the richest man in England. In 1306, after a quarrel and murdering John Comyn, Robert declared himself King of Scotland. He was crowned at Scone in March 1306 and then began a guerilla war against the English King Edward I. Initially he was not successful but gradually, with increasing support, he captured a number of castles - chivalrously allowing the defenders to return to England. Bruce heavily defeated the English army at Bannockburn in 1314 and defeated King Edward II's invasion in 1322 by a "scorched earth" policy. King Edward III of England eventually agreed to the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1328 which recognized Scotland's independence, ending the 30 years of the Wars of Independence. King Robert was gravely ill by this time and died at Cardross on 7 July 1329. His body was buried at Dunfermline Abbey but, at his request, his heart was taken on a Crusade against the Moors in Spain by James Douglas. It is now buried in Melrose Abbey.

 David II (1329-1371) David was Robert the Bruce's only surviving son, born when Bruce was aged 50, and was only five years old when his father died. In 1328 he had married Joan, sister of Edward III of England at the age four (she was seven). He was driven into exile in France by Edward Balliol (son of King John Balliol) who was supported by those who had been disinherited by Robert the Bruce. However, Bruce's grandson, Robert Stewart, upheld his cause in Scotland. David returned from France in 1341, deposing Edward Balliol. In response to an appeal for help from France, King David invaded England in 1346 but was captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross, remaining a prisoner at the English court until the Treaty of Berwick in 1357. David ruled with authority and included burgesses as well as nobles in the Parliament and trade increased during his rule. He married a second time, to Margaret Drummond but died without legitimate issue. He was succeeded by his nephew, Robert II the Steward.

 Edward Balliol (1332-1341 but with interruptions) Son of King John Balliol, the puppet of Edward I of England, Edward Balliol was acknowledged by some Scots as the heir to the throne. Taking advantage of King David II's minority and the death of the Regent Randolph, Earl of Moray (and tacitly supported by Edward III of England), Edward Balliol sailed into Kinghorn in Fife in 1332 and defeated a Scots army, led by the inexperienced Earl of Mar at the Battle of Dupplin. He was crowned at Scone six weeks later but was deposed by the end of the year. He returned in 1333, was deposed in 1334, restored in 1335 and was finally deposed in 1341 (by which time King David II was seventeen years old).

 Robert II (1371-1390) Son of Marjorie Bruce (daughter of King Robert the Bruce) and Walter, the High Steward of Scotland, Robert shared in the Regency during King David's minority spent in France (1333-1341) and again from 1346 to 1357 after David's capture at the Battle of Neville's Cross. He came to the throne at the age of 55 after the death of the childless King David II, thus starting the House of Stewart. King Robert II was known to be a totally different personality from that of King David II, and is known to have fathered at least twenty-one children; only fourteen of whom were legitimate with his two wives. Not much is known about his reign, but he appears to have had numerous conflicts with his nobles. Elderly and infirm, he allowed power to pass to his eldest son, Robert III in 1384, six years before his death.

 Robert III (1390-1406) Son of Robert II, King Robert III was considered illegitimate by the Church due to the too close consanguinity of his parents (though a Papal dispensation had been granted). Robert III was described as feeble, timid and unfit to rule. He had been crippled as a result of a riding accident two years before he came to the throne. He had been baptized as “John” but, in view of the potential confusion with John Balliol and the untimely fates of kings of that name in England and France, he was crowned as Robert III. He had a reputation for kindliness and justice, but his personal qualities and failing health undermined his authority and power was later transferred to his brother, the Duke of Albany, and his eldest son, the Duke of Rothesay. However, Albany imprisoned the Duke of Rothesay in Falkland Palace where he died of starvation in 1402. The King then sent his younger son, James, to France in 1406, but after he had been captured by pirates off Flamborogh Head, he became a prisoner of the English King Henry IV. King Robert III died some months later.

 James I (1406-1437) During James’ captivity in England (see paragraph above), the Duke of Albany (Robert III's brother) and then (in 1420) the Duke's son, Murdoch, acted as Regents. James, twelve-years-old when captured, was held in the Tower of London but was given a good education. James was eventually released under the Treaty of London for a sizeable ransom and returned to be crowned King James I at Scone in 1424. James set about establishing his rule (the Regent Murdoch and his two sons were beheaded and the Lord of the Isles was imprisoned for a spell). He renewed the “Auld Alliance” with France but his attempts to dominate the nobility resulted in his murder in Perth in 1437.

 James II (1437-1460) Born in 1430, James II was only seven when he succeeded to the throne. Archibald, 5th Earl Douglas, became Regent until his death in 1439. The 6th Earl Douglas was dragged to his death in the presence of James during the "Black Dinner" in Edinburgh Castle in 1440. In 1452, James attempted to establish his authority and while trying to persuade the 8th Earl of Douglas to give up support for the Lord of the Isles, James lost his temper and stabbed him, and then his bodyguard finished the job. During the ensuing conflict between the Douglas and Stewart supporters, the royal cannons demolished the Douglas strongholds. Later, in 1455, Parliament legislated for the Douglas fortresses to become royal possessions. The Lord of the Isles also succumbed. But in 1460, while James was inspecting one of the cannons during at the siege of Roxburgh Castle in 1460, it exploded, killing him.

James III (1460-1488) As the eldest surviving son of King James II, James III was nine years old when he was crowned at Kelso Abbey on August 10, 1460. A governing council, led by the King's mother, took control and, during a civil war in England, managed to gain control of Berwick on Tweed. James married Margaret the daughter of the King of Denmark in 1469 and began to assert his own power. But in 1482, an English army, supporting the cause of James' brother, Alexander, Duke of Albany, invaded. At this point, a group of Scottish nobles murdered some of the King's favorites and imprisoned the King in Edinburgh Castle as the English army advanced on Edinburgh. James survived but following further conflicts with some of the Border families, they encouraged his 15-year-old son to lead a rebellion. The opposing armies, both flying the lion rampant, met at the Battle of Sauchieburn, near Bannockburn on 11 June 1488. King James III was wounded in the battle and was subsequently killed by a man pretending to be a priest.

 James IV (1488-1513) As a self-imposed penance for causing the death of his father, James IV wore an iron chain round his waist for the rest of his life. He married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII in 1503. It was as a consequence of this marriage that the “Treaty of Everlasting Peace” was signed between Scotland and England at the time of the marriage- it lasted ten years. James had renewed the “Auld Alliance” with France when King Henry VIII of England had invaded France. James did not need to take action, but nevertheless advanced into England. After some minor successes he met an English army at Flodden on September 9 1513. The battle was the heaviest defeat ever experienced by a Scottish army, with the slaughter of the King and the flower of Scottish nobility – at least ten earls, countless lords and an estimated death toll of 10,000 Scots from the Highlands and the Lowlands.

 James V (1513-1542) James V was seventeen months old when he succeeded his father, and various regents and nobles governed Scotland until he was fifteen-years-old. He was eager to accumulate wealth and married twice, obtaining handsome dowries on each occasion. This was the age when the Reformation was sweeping Europe (and Henry VIII had created the separate Church of England), but James was committed to the Catholic Church. James attempted to subdue the Border families and the Highland clans, and while he was successful to a degree, they were conspicuous by their lack of support at time of war. King Henry VIII invaded, and the Scottish army was defeated at the Battle of Solway Moss on November 24, 1542. James returned to the Linlithgow and Falkland Palaces, depressed and defeated. He died on December 14, 1542 at the age of thirty, six days after his daughter Mary was born.

Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1567) Under the guardianship of the 2nd Earl of Arran, the infant Princess Mary was betrothed to the son of King Henry VIII of England. However, a pro-French and Catholic faction led by Mary's mother, Mary of Guise, gained the ascendancy and the agreement was overturned. King Henry VIII sent an army into Scotland to enforce the marriage in what became known as the “Rough Wooing.” Mary was sent for safety to France where she married the Dauphin, the heir to the French crown, in 1558. She became Queen of France and Scotland in 1559 but her husband, King Francis II, died in 1560. Mary returned to Scotland, and despite her Catholic faith, was crowned Queen of Protestant Scotland. During Mary's reign she was attacked for her Catholic beliefs by the religious reformer John Knox. Mary married her first cousin, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, after a whirlwind courtship, in July 1565. The future James VI was born in June 1566. Darnley was murdered in 1567 and the Earl of Bothwell was accused but ultimately acquitted of the crime. A few months later Mary and Bothwell were married. Angry nobles imprisoned Mary in Loch Leven Castle and she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son, James VI. She escaped from Loch Leven in May 1568 and gained a following, but her forces were defeated at the Battle of Langside on May 13. She escaped to England but was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth I of England. Accused of Catholic plots, she was beheaded at Fotheringay Castle on February 18, 1587.

James VI (1569-1625) Son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, James VI was proclaimed king at the age of one, following the enforced abdication of his mother. Like his grandfather James V, the young king became hostage to various factions and witnessed a number of regents being murdered. He escaped at the age of fourteen and asserted his own authority (including the execution of his recent captors, the Ruthvens). James was not in favor of the Protestants, preferring the Catholic faith. His ambition to become King of England as well as Scotland meant that he did nothing to mitigate the fate of his mother, and in 1603, with the death of Queen Elizabeth I of England, the “Union of the Crowns” took place. He immediately travelled to London (returning to Scotland only once). He established Protestant Scots and English in Ulster (thus creating the origins of the Irish sectarian conflicts) and colonies in Virginia in North America and commissioned an authorized version of the Bible.

 Charles I (1625-1649) Charles was the last king born in Scotland. He was a frail, sickly child, unlike his elder brother Henry, Prince of Wales. But Henry died in 1616 and Charles I was crowned in 1625. Charles believed in the “Divine Right of Kings” which led him into conflict with Parliament both in Westminster and Scotland. In Scotland the meddling of the king in church affairs led to the signing of the Covenant in 1638 and a call to arms. The English Parliament and the Scottish Presbyterians were both at loggerheads with the king and civil war broke out. The Marquis of Montrose carried out a brilliant campaign on behalf of the King in Scotland but with his cause lost in England, Charles surrendered to the Scottish army in 1646. He was subsequently handed over to the English Parliament and in 1649 he was executed.

 Charles II (1649-1685) Charles and his younger brother James were present at the Battle of Edgehill in 1645 when their father was defeated by Cromwell and the Roundheads. After exile in France, Charles returned to Scotland in 1650. Since Charles II was crowned at Scone on January 1, 1651, ten years before he was crowned in London, there was hardly an interregnum in Scotland. However, he marched into England and was defeated at the Battle of Worcester later in 1651 and fled to France and then Holland. The puritanical government of Oliver Cromwell eventually led to the Parliament at Westminster restoring the monarchy. However, Charles never returned to Scotland in the following twenty-five years.

 James VII (1685-1689) He was the second son of Charles I, and had advanced to be High Admiral of the Spanish fleet when the restoration of his brother, Charles II, made him commander of the English fleet instead, as well as as Duke of York. In 1664 James became governor of the American territory which had been controlled by the Dutch. New York was renamed in his honor. James, at that time a Protestant, introduced religious tolerance to the colonies which has survived to this day. Although he was converted to Catholicism in 1668, when he succeeded to the crown in 1685, at the age of 51, he promised to support the Church of England. Nevertheless, he savagely suppressed a revolt by the Duke of Monmouth and appointed Catholics in positions of influence. In 1688 his wife gave birth to James Francis Edward Stewart (the Old Pretender) but later in the year the Dutch Prince William of Orange, who was married to James' Protestant daughter, Mary, landed with an army and James fled to France – dropping the Great Seal of England into the River Thames on the way. James attempted an invasion in Ireland in 1689, but after a bloody campaign was defeated by William of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne. James' Jacobite supporters in Scotland were initially successful at the Battle of Killiecrankie on July 27, 1689, but were defeated later in the year at Battle of Dunkeld, and in 1690 at the Battle of Cromdale.

 William and Mary (1689-1702) Mary, daughter of James VII and a Protestant, married her cousin, the Dutch Prince William of Orange of the Netherlands in 1677 at the age of fifteen. Prince William had become a Protestant champion as a result of his resistance to Louis XIV of France. Despite William's preference for male company and lack of children, William & Mary worked successfully together. She insisted on William being regarded as King rather than consort, and William reconciled Mary with her younger sister Anne. When Mary died in 1694, William continued as monarch until his death in 1702.

 Anne (1702-1714) Queen Anne, James VII's second daughter, was regarded as an amiable, if not very bright individual, who carried out her duties as required. She had eighteen pregnancies, many of which miscarried or did not survive infancy; the oldest lasted only to age eleven. She suffered from gout, and when crowned at age thirty-seven could not walk during the ceremony. In order to ensure succession of a Protestant monarch, the Act of Succession was passed in 1701, appointing the Electress Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James VI. Her son George, Elector of Hanover, became King George I in 1714. It was during her reign that the Act of Union, uniting the Parliaments of Scotland and England, was passed in 1707.

 


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